Analys av inspektionsteknik för pannor, tryckkärl och rörledningar
As special equipment for carrying explosive, flammable, and toxic media, boilers and tryckkärl have been widely used in various industries. High temperature and explosiveness are its characteristics, and once an accident occurs, it will be a painful blow to the safety of people’s lives and property around it. For the safety of public life and property, no mistakes are allowed during the operation of pressure cooker containers. The inspection of boiler pressure vessels and pipelines is a very complex task. This article mainly discusses the content and methods of boiler pressure vessel and pipeline inspection, analyzes the problems in the quality supervision and inspection of boiler pressure vessels and pipeline installation, and proposes suggestions for boiler pressure vessel management inspection based on this.
The most basic function of a boiler is to process water into steam and provide heating for people in daily life. The generated heat energy can also be converted into mechanical energy by other machines for production use. With this feature, boilers have become essential items in human production and life.
1. Inspection content and methods for boiler pressure vessels and pipelines
In general, the departments responsible for inspecting boilers, pressure vessels, and pipelines are the boiler inspection station and boiler inspection center. The boiler inspection center mainly plays a supervisory, promoting, and improving role in the process of inspecting boiler pressure vessels in the company. Although China’s boiler industry skills are very close to the international advanced level, boiler accidents still occur from time to time. Moreover, once it occurs, it will inevitably cause significant losses to the victims. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct necessary inspections before using the boiler to reduce the incidence of accidents. Based on years of research on the inspection of boilers and pressure vessels, the author believes that the inspection methods can be summarized in the following aspects.
1.1 External Inspection
In recent years, boiler accidents have occurred frequently, and relevant departments are required by the state to inspect boilers at least once a year. The inspection of the boiler while it is in operation is called an external inspection, which takes place approximately once a year. In addition to external inspections during normal hours, safety monitoring is required again when placing a transfer boiler, when changing the combustion mode of the boiler, when the boiler stops working for a long time and then runs again, and when changing the safety system of the boiler.
1.2 Internal Inspection
The inspection of the boiler during shutdown is called the internal inspection of the boiler. Because the environment in which the boiler operates is extremely harsh, the internal medium is inevitably affected. In addition, the high temperature and high pressure external environment can easily cause corrosion of the internal medium. In general, the internal inspection of boiler is conducted every two years. But like external inspections, in case of special circumstances or harsh operating environment of the boiler, the inspection cycle can also be shortened in a timely manner, depending on the actual situation.
1.3 Pressure inspection
Because the working process of the boiler converts water into steam as a pressure equipment to provide heat, it is necessary to conduct pressure testing on the boiler equipment during inspection. It is worth noting that for the pressure components inside the boiler, during inspection, the staff not only need to conduct pressure inspection, but also check their strength and density. In general, this type of inspection is sufficient once every six years. However, in special circumstances, the inspection cycle should be shortened. For example, during production, it is best to shorten the inspection period to three years for boilers that have not been monitored. For parts with a pressure capacity lower than the medium pressure, they must be resolutely discarded.
1.4 Quality Control
As an important component of the boiler system, operating equipment is the key point of quality control for boiler pressure vessels, and it is also directly related to whether the boiler can continue to operate. Whether the inspection personnel have internationally issued qualification certificates, possess corresponding qualifications, whether the management personnel are qualified, whether the management discipline is scientific, and whether there are defects in pipeline welding are all the work contents of quality inspection. Due to the complexity and complexity of quality inspection, inspectors must strictly follow the regulations and carefully verify each link of quality inspection to ensure the quality of each link.
2. Problems in the quality supervision and inspection of pressure pipeline installation
Although China’s boiler industry skills are very close to the international advanced level, boiler accidents still occur from time to time, and once they occur, they will threaten people’s lives and property safety. Regarding the current monitoring process of boiler pressure vessels, the author believes that there are several issues in the inspection process.
Firstly, due to the differences in specifications between some imported boiler pressure vessel parts and domestic ones, and the lack of specific relevant information in practical application, the installation and application process of boilers is very difficult. Some suppliers cannot provide quality inspection reports for boilers and pressure vessels, and can only provide fragmented information about boilers and pressure vessels. Secondly, the personnel team is chaotic and the quality assurance system is incomplete. There are too few personnel engaged in the inspection of boiler and pressure vessels, and some employees lack professional qualification certificates, or the certificates are not comprehensive enough. They only have certificates from the quality supervision system, and even some staff’s certificates have expired. This phenomenon is not uncommon in boiler and pressure vessel quality inspection units, which directly leads to the confusion of the boiler and pressure vessel practitioners to some extent. Thirdly, the evaluation data of the welding process is not complete enough, and the evaluation parameters are not comprehensive enough, which directly affects the final evaluation results of welding. In the evaluation process, there are often problems such as missing evaluation data, erroneous sentences, incorrect sentences, and unreasonable review. Fourthly, for the operation of boilers and pressure vessels, quality inspectors cannot submit quality inspection reports in a timely manner. Fifth, personnel allocation and transfer are unreasonable, and some departments have too few quality inspection personnel.
3. Suggestions for Boiler and Pressure Vessel Management Inspection
3.1 Improve the quality inspection system for boilers and pressure vessels
Firstly, ensure the quality of raw materials. The quality of raw materials directly affects the quality of boiler manufacturing. In order to ensure the smooth operation of boiler pressure vessels, it is necessary to ensure the quality of raw materials. Only by ensuring the quality of raw materials can the construction quality of the boiler be guaranteed. Secondly, strictly control the production quality of containers. Before container production, the staff must carefully review the drawings and strictly follow the relevant process flow for container production. Once there is a quality issue at a certain stage of the boiler pressure vessel, it will inevitably affect the quality of the boiler pressure vessel. Finally, strictly control the quality of the boiler. As a special equipment carrying explosive, flammable, and toxic media, flammability and explosiveness are the characteristics of boiler pressure vessels. Boiler pressure vessels are prone to defects, and inspection is essential. The quality of the boiler should be strictly controlled. Based on the issue that many boiler and pressure vessel enterprises in China do not have product inspection reports, the national regulatory authorities should strengthen intervention efforts, timely supervise and urge enterprises to improve the quality inspection reports of boiler and pressure vessels, and ensure the quality of boiler and pressure vessels.
3.2 Strengthen talent training
The number of personnel engaged in boiler and pressure vessel testing is too small, and some practitioners lack professional qualification certificates, or the certificates are not comprehensive enough, and it is not uncommon to only have quality supervision system certificates. In order to improve the quality assurance system of boiler and pressure vessels and reduce the occurrence of personnel confusion, relevant departments should strengthen the training and supervision of boiler and pressure vessel practitioners, ensure that every employee has a professional qualification certificate issued by the state, and check whether the employee’s certificate has expired, to ensure the professionalism of boiler and pressure vessel practitioners. At the same time, enterprises should increase their investment in material, human, and financial resources for boilers and pressure vessels to ensure the quality of boilers and pressure vessels.
As a special equipment carrying explosive, flammable, and toxic media, once an accident occurs in a boiler pressure vessel, it will seriously threaten the safety of people’s lives and property. Therefore, no mistakes are allowed during the operation of pressure vessels. To ensure the quality of boiler pressure vessels, the quality inspection system for boiler pressure vessels should be improved, and investment in material, human, and financial resources for boiler pressure vessels should be increased.